Flax and ramie strands, however, are usually separated into individual fibre cells, or true plant fibres. The principal consumers of Ramie fibre are Japan, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. 3d), and intense degradation was evident in the … Bamboo also contains a substance called bamboo-kun, an antimicrobial agent that gives the plant a natural resistance to pest and fungi infestation. In tanks with warm water, the time is reduced to a few days. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh and some in India, mainly Bengal. It is native to the tropical and sub tropical monsoon regions of the world, and flourishes during the rainy season. Ramie has very similar properties to linen; it is a natural white in color, has an excellent lustre and is unusually resistant to bacteria and moulds. The second best option is cutting the plant stalks very close to ground level. The penetration of water into the stems causes the detachment of the bast fibres, thus allowing the entry of retting bacteria, which demolish the fibre‐binding pectins (Donaghy et al. Linen absorbs dye well, especially natural dyes and does not require chemical treatments. The fibre itself needs to be separated from the interior xylem or woody core and some times also from the epidermis which is the outer most layer of cells that carries nutrients to the leaves. Today, this project has has grown to over 80 hectares. In tanks with warm water, the time is reduced to a few days. Required fields are marked *. Kenaf fibers are shorter and coarser than those of jute. It is reported to yield ~6–10 tons of dry matter per acre, nine times the yield of wood. As a textile fibre it blends well with both other natural fibres and synthetics and when dyed it retains colour well being both colour and light fast. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. It contributes to the construction and automotive industries as well as the health food and cosmetics industries. to soak in water or expose to moisture, as flax or hemp, to facilitate the removal of the fiber from the woody tissue by partial rotting. Flax processing is, however labour intensive, requiring skilled workers. Ramie has an excellent resistance to abrasion and a tensile strength three to five times stronger than cotton and twice as strong as flax, although it is brittle and will break if consistently folded in the same place. However, within the European Union and Canada a licence has to be issued for its cultivation. For more information on linen, go into the Linen-Bast category. White or pure white is only achieved through various bleaching processes. It is grown in Ireland and Northern Europe; from Southern Normandy, France to Belgium and the Netherlands, which together produce 85% of the world’s flax. Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes. The extensive root system of bamboo and the fact that it is not uprooted during harvesting means bamboo actually helps preserve soil and prevent soil erosion. DISCUSSION Aniumber of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, are involved in the retting of jute. Hemp is an ecologically and sustainably important plant, running in tandem with ‘green future’ objectives and is often referred to as the World’s most useful plant. Coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. Sativa which is commonly known as Industrial hemp and is the term given to the variety grown for fibre and other non drug related purposes. The traditional uses for kenaf have been rope, twine and coarse cloth as well as for fuel and nutrition. In stream retting the plants are immersed in slow moving streams for a longer time and the quality of the product is high. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. The best fibre quality was obtained after 3-4 days of retting with the addition of the bacterial inoculum. It is ready for harvesting in 4 years and does not require re-planting as the extensive root base sprouts new shoots readily, it therefore has the potential to be a highly sustainable raw material. This restriction has hampered its use as a modern commercially viable raw material. This is the most important bamboo type in China, where it covers about 3 million hectares. It grows best under traditional farming methods where the crops are rotated and fields are allowed to lay fallow; it also benefits from a longer lifespan. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. This versatile fibre is also used for paper, film, composite materials and geotextiles in environmental engineering. India produces a variety of hemp known as Sunn or Bombay Hemp. The two principal plant varieties are: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. Flax is the only commercial cellulosic textile plant indigenous to Western Europe; it is also the strongest of all the vegetable fibres being two to three times stronger than cotton. CC BY-NCIf you use this content on your site please link back to this page and credit accordingly. Natural retting is considered to be impractical for modern industrial purposes, but this low technology will always be appropriate somewhere, and never completely obsolete. It also greatly reduces rain run-off. Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into strong threads. Retting time must be carefully judged;… The crops grow quickly and around 100 days after harvesting the soil is left in better condition as it has been replenished with nutrients and nitrogen. Many Chinese producers of bamboo viscose continue to use caustic chemicals in their processing, negating the sustainable benefits of the raw fibre. It takes 2–4 weeks for dam retting. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Japan, under American influence also restricted the growth of hemp in 1948 and is one of the few Eastern countries to have prohibited its cultivation. There are two ways of retting flax, water retting and dew retting. Canada, the United Kingdom and Germany lifted the ban in the 1990s. A new process has recently been developed that makes it possible to use the same machinery as cotton when weaving hemp. The fibres are then usually separated from the stalk by retting but are sometimes obtained by decortication which is a manual or mechanical peeling operation. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting i… Sustainable land use practices that provide both economic and environmental advantages and are of global importance as the world’s six billion people compete for water, food, fibre and shelter, the high yield per hectare of bamboo becomes a very significant advantage. Chemical retting is more expensive and does not produce the superior quality fibre obtained from the biological retting process. It can also be used for biodegradable plastics. The longest and more desirable flax fibres are from plants that have been hand harvested; this is the process of pulling the complete plant with root (fibres go all the way to the root) from the ground. It can be sun bleached to avoid the use of artificial agents. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium - Brainly.in. Along with flax, this fast-growing plant is now the basis for a new textile woven on conventional cotton-machinery, called CRAILAR� Organic Fibres. Dew retting tends to yield a dark-colored fiber. The process involves soaking (water retting) or exposure to moisture (dew-, or field-, retting) using pectin enzymes naturally secreted by indigenous microflora. The fibers are loosened in a few hours, but close control is required to prevent deterioration and damage to the fibres. Example:Jute is associated with the process of Retting. Germany and Brazil also import raw jute from Bangladesh. Jute or Hessian is one of the cheapest natural fibres to produce, and is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton, in terms of production, global consumption, and availability. The fibres are naturally white and do not need to undergo any bleaching processes for either paper or cloth uses. The actual fibres are located between the epidermis, or bark surface, and an inner woody core. In 2004 a DEFRA funded project ‘Sustainable Technology in Nettle Growing’ (STING) at Leicester's De Montfort University has succeeded in extracting a silky thread that is stronger and finer than that of other plants such as hemp. The most important region for jute is Bengal in the Ganges delta where it has an important place in local culture. In Canada the export of hemp seeds has increased by over 300% over the last two years. It is an ecologically sustainable plant requiring far less water and no chemical pesticides or fertilisation. The bast fibres are stuck together with a ‘glue’ formed of pectins and lignins. Fiber characteristics such as bundle strength, elongation at break, color, luster, reed length, and gum content were compared for fibers … The released fibre bundles, called strands, are frequently used without additional separation, in which case they are called fibres. Due to its ease of cultivation, potential environmental benefits and extraordinary growth rate it is a cheap, sustainable and efficient crop. The beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. By retting the fibres they are softened and can be decorticated and extracted by beating 16, which is usually done by hand. Bamboo fibre for textiles is either produced mechanically (via the retting process), or chemically (regenerated via the viscose process). The finest qualities of hemp for fabric are now produced in Italy. The emerging uses for it today span engineering applications, insulation paper and clothing grade cloth as well as providing vegetable oil from the seeds. However, it is far less labor intensive and less expensive than water retting. The soft tissues are removed from the fibre plant with the help of bacteria. Other articles where Water retting is discussed: retting: In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. www.tlist-journal.org Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology (TLIST) Volume 2 Issue 4, October 2013 Study on Extraction of Bamboo Fibres from Raw Bamboo Fibres Bundles Using Different Retting Techniques Varinder Kaur1, D P Chattopadhyay2, Satindar Kaur3 1Department of Applied Chemical Sciences & Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 2Department of Textile … The process involving the recognition of phage to bacterium is called landing. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. Bast fibres, like linen and flax are obtained from the phloem, or inner bark (or skin) of a plant. The process for this separation is called retting. The root system of bamboo creates an effective watershed, stitching the soil together along fragile river banks, deforested areas, and in places prone to mudslides. Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. Fibers are obtained from flax stems by the process of retting. Even when these are used flax requires only one fifth of the pesticides and artificial fertilisers that is required for commercially grown cotton. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. Fig. Microbes are also important in agriculture for the compost and fertilizer production. It also sustains many varieties of invertebrate species. Jute fibres are composed of mainly cellulose but also lignin, which is a wood fibre. In textiles it is often mistaken for linen and is extremely absorbent and dries quickly. Traditional uses for ramie have been for heavy industrial-type fabrics such as canvas, packaging material, and upholstery. During harvesting, the plant stalks are cut off close to the base or pulled up. 2. 3.1 ~ Retting Hemp bast fiber must be separated from the woody core by mechanical means (decortication) or by the process of "retting" (rotting). Naturally Advanced Technologies Inc. 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